The latest purple arrow suggests the fresh hybrid region center, toward eastern side of a hundred km

The latest purple arrow suggests the fresh hybrid region center, toward eastern side of a hundred km

Maxent-produced kinds shipments activities (SDMs). a) North Jacana (J. spinosa); b) Wattled Jacana (J. jacana); c) the fresh hypomelaena race off Wattled Jacana; d) Close-right up regarding combined SDMs to own spinosa and you will jacana inside their contact zone. In the a beneficial- c) red circles show kinds findings used to make new patterns, whenever you are blue ways elements with a high environment viability within our SDMs (assortment 0.4 – step 1.0). In d) dark gray means places where habitats are forecast to be appropriate for only you to definitely taxon when you’re bluish suggests places where activities to possess both taxa provides predicted viability significantly more than 0.cuatro. wider area for appropriate environment for both variety. Purple circles represent places that phenotypic crossbreed specimens were obtained.

Mean Bioclim opinions within 239 J. spinosa additionally the 246 J. jacana density issues was in fact rather various other getting 9 from fifteen ecological parameters once good Bonferonni manage to own several screening. Six of your own 9 (BioClim levels 1, dos, 5, 8, 9, 10) level some element of heat (elizabeth.g. yearly imply heat or imply Imperativ kobling temperatures from driest one-fourth), as well as on average, J. spinosa happens in more comfortable (otherwise warmer inside a particular season) habitats than just J. jacana (Additional document step 3: Figure S1, More document 4: Table S2). The remainder around three variables (BioClim levels thirteen,15,19) was associated with the precipitation; once again J. spinosa takes place in items with high rainfall (or even more rainfall in the a particular year) prior to J. jacana (More document step three: Profile S1, Most document 4: Table S2).

Before now analysis, it had been uncertain if jacanas actually hybridized

Kinds shipping designs with the various “” new world “” jacana taxa all of the differed somewhat throughout shot metrics (D, I, RR; Extra file 5: Table S3). To start with, our performance show that the habitats predicted to-be suitable for J. spinosa and you can J. jacana is somewhat various other, no matter whether i think every mainland J. jacana or perhaps this new every-black colored J. j. hypomelaena battle. I and receive high differences between J. j. hypomelaena and also the rest of the continental delivery off J. jacana.


Northern (J. spinosa) and you will Wattled Jacanas (J. jacana) hybridize the spot where the range of these two types meet into the western Panama. The latest slim hybrid zone appears to be the consequence of the communication between the behavioural dominance regarding J. spinosa counteracted from the an inappropriate J. spinosa habitat eastern of your get in touch with zone. Wetmore speculated one specific specimens about part was hybrids, however, offered couple information. Betts reported a great bird which have appear to combined facial decoration and plumage about Osa Peninsula when you look at the southern area Costa Rica near the edging that have Panama, although hybrid character of the sample was rejected by Jenni & Mace exactly who debated that the bird could have been an younger unlike a crossbreed, and stated that zero definitive hybrids between your variety have been understood. not, the newest earliest museum sample classified as an effective “hybrids” dates in order to 1924 and is actually built-up in the a location smaller next thirty five kilometer west of the modern phenotypic crossbreed zone center (and you will well in the phenotypic introgression zone) recommending a chronic crossbreed zone into the southwest Panama (Additional document step 1: Dining table S1). Overall, the sort from hybridization of the kinds might have been blurry by the that the latest J. j. hypomelaena subspecies out of J. jacana taking place inside the central and you may east Panama possess inky-black colored dorsal plumage while the more prevalent communities out of J. jacana in South america feel the chestnut-colored dorsal plumage characteristic of all populations out of J. spinosa. In fact, J. spinosa and you can South Western J. jacana should be renowned of the facial ornamentation and female size instead than simply plumage. Our analyses regarding phenotypic and hereditary good and you may past securely establish hybridization between them variety, and provide the first files out-of a persistent hybrid area for the a while doing so-polyandrous bird types . Using decimal quotes out of phenotypic emails, i unearthed that sixteen% out of mature jacanas on contact region is categorized because hybrids, and you can 46% of one’s specimens displayed specific proof phenotypic introgression between pure parental models.

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